Abrupt suspension of probiotics administration may increase host pathogen susceptibility by inducing gut dysbiosis
In this study, we investigated the risk associated with suspension of probiotics administration in tilapia, an animal model that may mimic immune-compromised conditions in humans. Tilapias were fed for 14 days using a probiotics-supplemented diet, followed by a three-day suspension of probiotics treatment and a subsequent challenge by Aeromonas hydrophila. Unexpectedly, the suspension of a probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum JCM1149 significantly triggered susceptibility of the host to A. hydrophila. We further observed that suspension of JCM1149 resulted in host gut microbiota dysbiosis and the subsequent disorder in the intestinal metabolites (bile acids, amino acids, and glucose) and damage in the intestinal epithelium, giving rise to a condition similar to antibiotics-induced gut dysbiosis, which collectively impaired tilapia’s gut health and resistance to pathogenic challenges. Additionally, we determined that JCM1149 adhered relatively poorly to tilapia intestinal mucosa and was rapidly released from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) after suspension, with the rapid loss of probiotic strain probably being the direct cause of gut dysbiosis. Finally, three other probiotic Lactobacillus strains with low intestinal mucosa binding activity showed similar rapid loss phenotype following administration suspension, and induced higher host susceptibility to infection, indicating that the risk is a generic phenomenon in Lactobacillus.
"Ussing Chamber Experiment
Intact tilapia intestines were cut open and stripped from the seromuscular layer in tilapia Ringer’s solution (mM: NaCl, 140; NaHCO3, 10; KCl, 4; NaH2PO4,2; MgSO4, 1; CaCl2,1; glucose, 5.5; pH 7.8). Tilapia foregut tissues (5 × 5 mm2) were mounted on P20038 clamps using the Easy Mount Ussing chamber system (model VCC MC6; Physiologic Instruments, USA) as previously described60. After a 20 min equilibration step, transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and short circuit currents (ISC) were automatically recorded every 5 min over a one-hour period using Acquire and Analyze software (Physiologic Instruments, USA)."
See the complete original article here: https://www.nature.com/articles/srep23214